GEOPOLITICS OF PERESTROIKA AND THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR
The geopolitics of Perestroika
Right up until 1985, the attitude in the USSR towards connecting with the West was on the whole rather sceptical. Only in the period of Y. Andropov's rule did the situation change somewhat, and according to his instruction, a group of Soviet scientists and academic institutes received the task of actively cooperating with globalist structures (the Club of Rome, the CFR, the Trilateral Commission, etc.). On the whole, the principle foreign policy aims of the USSR remained unchanged during the entire stretch from Stalin to Chernenko.
Changes in the USSR begin with M. S. Gorbachev's arrival to the office of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He took office against the backdrop of the Afghanistan War, which more and more came to a deadlock. From his first steps in the office of General Secretary, Gorbachev came up against serious problems. The social, economic, political, and ideological car began to stall. Society was apathetic. The Marxist worldview lost its appeal and continued to be broadcasted by inertia. A growing percentage of the urban intelligentsia was more and more attracted to Western culture, wishing for "Western" standards. The national outskirts lost their modernizational potential, and in some places the repressive processes of archaization began; nationalist sentiments flared up, and so on. The arms race and the necessity of constantly competing with a rather dynamically developing capitalist system exhausted the economy. To an even greater extent, discontent in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe came to a head, where the appeal of Western capitalist standards was felt even more keenly, while the prestige of the USSR gradually fell. In these conditions, it was demanded of Gorbachev to make some kind of definite decision concerning the further strategy of the USSR and of the entire Eastern bloc.